## Sunday, May 21, 2023

When reactive power devices, whether capacitive or inductive, are purposefully added to a power network in order to produce a specific outcome, this is referred to as compensation. It’s as simple as that. This could involve greater transmission capacity, enhanced stability performance, and enhanced voltage profiles as well as improved power factor. The reactive devices can be connected either in series or in parallel (shunt).

Before we get into the depth of describing the compensation applications and other details, let’s remind ourselves of the power flow basics.

As you can see from Figure 1, the flow of power in an electric circuit is illustrated. The link has an impedance of , and we assume that  and that V1 leads V2. In most power networks, , and reactive power flows from A to B. The direction of reactive power flow can be reversed by making V2>V1.

The magnitude of reactive power flow is determined by the voltage difference between point A and B. When R is ignored

Series capacitors are utilized  of a power network. This is illustrated in Figure 2. From the phasor diagram in Figure 3 we can see that the load voltage is higher when the capacitor is inserted in the circuit.

– Use of series capacitors to neutralize inductor reactors

Introducing series capacitance in the network reduces the net reactance X, and increases the load voltage, with the result that the circuit’s transmission capacity is increased, as can be seen from equation Q = V2(V1 − V2) / X.

Due to the added transmission capacity, series-capacitor compensation may delay investments in additional overhead lines and transmission equipment, which can have capital investment benefits to the utility company as well as environmental impact advantages.

A 33 kV, 1.25 MVAr capacitor bank on the New York Power and Light system served as the first series-capacitor installation in history in 1928. Since then, numerous higher-rated systems have been deployed all around the globe

When reactive power devices, whether capacitive or inductive, are purposefully added to a power network in order to produce a specific outcome, this is referred to as compensation. It’s as simple as that. This could involve greater transmission capacity, enhanced stability performance, and enhanced voltage profiles as well as improved power factor. The reactive devices can be connected either in series or in parallel (shunt).

Before we get into the depth of describing the compensation applications and other details, let’s remind ourselves of the power flow basics.

As you can see from Figure 1, the flow of power in an electric circuit is illustrated. The link has an impedance of , and we assume that  and that V1 leads V2. In most power networks, , and reactive power flows from A to B. The direction of reactive power flow can be reversed by making V2>V1.

The magnitude of reactive power flow is determined by the voltage difference between point A and B. When R is ignored

Series capacitors are utilized  of a power network. This is illustrated in Figure 2. From the phasor diagram in Figure 3 we can see that the load voltage is higher when the capacitor is inserted in the circuit.

– Use of series capacitors to neutralize inductor reactors

Introducing series capacitance in the network reduces the net reactance X, and increases the load voltage, with the result that the circuit’s transmission capacity is increased, as can be seen from equation Q = V2(V1 − V2) / X.

Due to the added transmission capacity, series-capacitor compensation may delay investments in additional overhead lines and transmission equipment, which can have capital investment benefits to the utility company as well as environmental impact advantages.

A 33 kV, 1.25 MVAr capacitor bank on the New York Power and Light system served as the first series-capacitor installation in history in 1928. Since then, numerous higher-rated systems have been deployed all around the globe