## Thursday, April 7, 2022

thermodynamic free energy or "free energy" in chemistry and physics is the amount of work a thermodynamic system can do. This relationship constitutes an important idea in thermodynamics, which studies chemical and thermal processes in engineering and science. Free energy is the internal energy in a system minus the amount of energy that cannot be used to do work. That amount of energy that cannot be used to do work is the product of the system's entropy multiplied by the system's temperature.

Like free energy and internal energy, both are system state functions.

Free energy is that energy in a system that can be utilized by performing thermodynamic work, that is, work resulting from thermal energy. The free energy of a system is carried out after it has done work, that is, it is an irreversible process. . According to the first law of thermodynamics, "energy remains and does not perish." According to the second law of thermodynamics, energy can do work during a certain period of time. Several equations can be deduced that give the free energy of a system, each of which depends on certain conditions. The free energy functions are Legendre transformations of the internal energy of a system. For a thermodynamic process during which the system is under constant pressure, g at a constant temperature, the Gibbs free energy is useful as it changes the entropy of the system due to heat, and in addition, it generates work (p.dV) in order to “make room for new formed particles” resulting During operation (p pressure and dV change in system volume).

In thermodynamics, we also know Helmholtz's free energy and it is of theoretical importance as it is directly proportional to the logarithm of the hash function in statistical mechanics. That is why it is used by physicists, chemists, and engineers who are interested in the gaseous state and do not want to neglect the pdV work.

Helmholtz defined free energy by the equation:

W = U − TS
where:

u internal energy,
T absolute temperature,
and S entropy.
Its value is equal to the amount of work done on the system through a reversible process with a constant temperature T or the resultant of the system. Since the equation does not mention 1 gram anything about pressure or volume, the Helmholz equation for free energy is considered a general equation: its decrease means "the maximum amount of work that the system can perform". And if it increases, it gives the maximum amount of work that we can do “on” the system.

And there is Gibbs free energy, its definition,

G = H − TS
where:

H is the enthalpy (the enthalpy of the system).
(H = U + pV, where p is pressure and V is volume.)

Historically, physicists used Helmholz's free energy, while chemists often used Gibbs free energy.

thermodynamic free energy or "free energy" in chemistry and physics is the amount of work a thermodynamic system can do. This relationship constitutes an important idea in thermodynamics, which studies chemical and thermal processes in engineering and science. Free energy is the internal energy in a system minus the amount of energy that cannot be used to do work. That amount of energy that cannot be used to do work is the product of the system's entropy multiplied by the system's temperature.

Like free energy and internal energy, both are system state functions.

Free energy is that energy in a system that can be utilized by performing thermodynamic work, that is, work resulting from thermal energy. The free energy of a system is carried out after it has done work, that is, it is an irreversible process. . According to the first law of thermodynamics, "energy remains and does not perish." According to the second law of thermodynamics, energy can do work during a certain period of time. Several equations can be deduced that give the free energy of a system, each of which depends on certain conditions. The free energy functions are Legendre transformations of the internal energy of a system. For a thermodynamic process during which the system is under constant pressure, g at a constant temperature, the Gibbs free energy is useful as it changes the entropy of the system due to heat, and in addition, it generates work (p.dV) in order to “make room for new formed particles” resulting During operation (p pressure and dV change in system volume).

In thermodynamics, we also know Helmholtz's free energy and it is of theoretical importance as it is directly proportional to the logarithm of the hash function in statistical mechanics. That is why it is used by physicists, chemists, and engineers who are interested in the gaseous state and do not want to neglect the pdV work.

Helmholtz defined free energy by the equation:

W = U − TS
where:

u internal energy,
T absolute temperature,
and S entropy.
Its value is equal to the amount of work done on the system through a reversible process with a constant temperature T or the resultant of the system. Since the equation does not mention 1 gram anything about pressure or volume, the Helmholz equation for free energy is considered a general equation: its decrease means "the maximum amount of work that the system can perform". And if it increases, it gives the maximum amount of work that we can do “on” the system.

And there is Gibbs free energy, its definition,

G = H − TS
where:

H is the enthalpy (the enthalpy of the system).
(H = U + pV, where p is pressure and V is volume.)

Historically, physicists used Helmholz's free energy, while chemists often used Gibbs free energy.